Authors: Diogo Leitão, Pedro Saleiro, Mário A. T. Figueiredo, Pedro Bizarro Human-AI collaboration (HAIC) in decision-making aims to create synergistic teaming between human decision-makers and AI systems. Learning to defer (L2D) has been presented as a promising framework to determine who among humans and AI should make which decisions in order to optimize the performance and fairness of the combined system. Nevertheless, L2D entails several often unfeasible requirements, such as the availability of predictions from humans for every instance or ground-truth labels that are independent from said humans. Furthermore, neither L2D nor alternative approaches tackle fundamental issues of deploying HAIC systems in real-world settings, such as capacity management or dealing with dynamic environments. In this paper, we aim to identify and review these and other limitations, pointing to where opportunities for future research in HAIC may lie. arXiv: Venue: ICML 2022 workshop on Human-Machine Collaboration and Teaming ( To learn more about the Research Team at Feedzai, visit: